Territory Stories

The Northern Territory news Tue 25 Apr 2017

Details:

Title

The Northern Territory news Tue 25 Apr 2017

Other title

NT news

Collection

The Northern Territory news; NewspaperNT

Date

2017-04-25

Description

This publication contains may contain links to external sites. These external sites may no longer be active.

Language

English

Subject

Community newspapers -- Northern Territory -- Darwin; Australian newspapers -- Northern Territory -- Darwin

Publisher name

News Corp Australia

Place of publication

Darwin

File type

application/pdf

Use

Copyright. Made available by the publisher under licence.

Copyright owner

News Corp Australia

License

https://www.legislation.gov.au/Series/C1968A00063

Parent handle

https://hdl.handle.net/10070/267140

Citation address

https://hdl.handle.net/10070/444957

Page content

school work news DAILYTELEGRAPH.COM.AU TUESDAY MARCH 28 2017 33 V1 - TELE01Z01MA POMPEII In the years after Vesuvius erupted in AD79, when the ashes had settled enough for people to approach, tunnels were dug to try to reach the city, mostly for the purpose of looting its treasures. CITY FROZEN IN TIME A Violent volcanic eruptions where ash and gases shoot up in the air are known as plinian eruptions in Plinys honour. The eruption didnt just preserve people and buildings but also the clothes and jewellery they wore. Many animals were also preserved along with loaves of bread (above) and seeds from fruits the Pompeians ate. i Nobody is sure where the name Pompeii originated. One theory suggests it came from the triumphal procession allegedly held in the honour of Hercules known as a pompa. However, another theory suggests it came from the Oscan word for five which was pumpe suggesting the town had five hamlets. i i i PLINY THE ELDER Born Caius Plinius Secundus about AD23 in Novum Comum (now Como, a Roman colony in Transalpine Gaul), he was from a well-to-do family and was sent to Rome to be educated. Although he studied law, he developed a fascination for natural sciences. He embarked on a military career at the age of 23, served time in Germany, and rose to become a cavalry commander. After 10 years in the military, he returned to Rome to practise law. He also spent time researching and writing works on history and natural science, possibly avoiding official service to the erratic emperor Nero. But Nero was deposed in AD68. He was succeeded by Galba, who only reigned for six months, before Vespasian ascended the throne in AD69. Pliny had served with Vespasian in Germany and took up a number of posts under him. He was serving as commander of the fleet at Misenum, across the bay from Pompeii, when the eruption of Vesuvius occurred. Plinys curiosity was piqued and he had to see the eruption from a closer vantage point. He used the Roman naval ships to rescue hundreds of people but unfortunately lost his own life, succumbing to the fumes and ash. Plinys nephew Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, known as Pliny the Younger, wrote an account of his uncles death. REDISCOVERY OF POMPEII The volcanic ash from the eruption preserved much of Pompeii and the bodies of those who died there. The site was rediscovered in the late 16th century. The first excavations, in 1748, discovered bodies inside cavities. The fine ash that encased the bodies, hardened to form a porous shell. But as the bodies decayed, the hardened ash had preserved their postures at the moment of death (above). In 1864 Giuseppe Fiorelli, the director of the excavations, developed a technique that allowed the body shapes to be preserved. Plaster was EVERY TUESDAY Editor: Tory Lennon (02) 9288 2542 Email: troy.lennon@news.com.au Design: Fabrizio Fiorito poured inside the cavities creating a replica of the victim. Some were quite detailed, showing clothing and expressions. Unfortunately, the plaster also covered a lot of other archaeological evidence in the process. But the images of the people became one of the most famous aspects of Pompeii and are still on display there. Scientists have also been able to scan the plaster to discover new details about the citizens of the town. The site has become one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy and has also provided a wealth of information on ancient Roman life. EXHIBITION Escape from Pompeii: The Untold Roman Rescue exhibition opens at the Australian National Maritime Museum this month. Focusing in part on Plinys rescue mission, it features objects from Pompeii and Herculaneum, and Roman shipwrecks in the waters around Pompeii. The exhibition includes plaster casts of victims of the eruption along with jewellery, frescoes, ceramics, sculptures and even a bronze rostrum (ram) from an ancient Roman warship. Escape from Pompeii: The Untold Roman Rescue, Australian National Maritime Museum Darling Harbour; March 31-August 30, open daily, 9.30am-5pm bookings@anmm.gov.au SOURCES AND FURTHER STUDY Pompeii The Life of a Roman Town by Mary Beard (Profile Books) Pompeii The Lost City by Fiona McDonald (HarperCollins) Pompeii www.pompei.it Encyclopaedia Britannica www.britannica.com Australian National Maritime Museum www.anmm.gov.au/Whats On/Exhibitions/Coming/ Pompeii An artists impression of what Pompeii might have looked like before the volcanic eruption. Pictures (far left and far right) are the ruins today. A plaster cast (left) is from one of the victims found in the ruins. 24 TUESDAY MARCH 28 2017 DAILYTELEGRAPH.COM.AU TELE01Z01MA - V1 POMPEII In the years after Vesuvius erupted in AD79, when the ashes had settled enough for people to approach, tunnels were dug to try to reach the city, mostly for the purpose of looting its treasures. CITY FROZEN IN TIME A Violent volcanic eruptions where ash and gases shoot up in the air are known as plinian eruptions in Plinys honour. The eruption didnt just preserve people and buildings but also the clothes and jewellery they wore. Many animals were also preserved along with loaves of bread (above) and seeds from fruits the Pompeians ate. i Nobody is sure where the name Pompeii originated. One theory suggests it came from the triumphal procession allegedly held in the honour of Hercules known as a pompa. However, another theory suggests it came from the Oscan word for five which was pumpe suggesting the town had five hamlets. i i i VOLCANOES A volcano is a point on the Earths crust where magma, a form of molten rock from the mantle (the layer beneath Earths crust), is able to push through. They occur in parts of the world where two or more tectonic plates (hard pieces of Earths crust sliding around on the upper layer of the mantle) meet. At these tectonic boundaries the plates either spread apart (spreading or divergent boundaries), slide under the other (subduction or convergent boundaries), or rub up against each other (transform boundaries). At divergent and convergent boundaries, the plates are relatively thin and fissures form allowing magma to escape from the mantle. On its way to the surface the magma collects rocks, gases and other chemicals that may change its composition. Once it bursts through the crust it becomes lava. The material thrown out of this hole often builds up into a cone-shaped hill or mountain, thereby creating the volcano. While some volcanoes remain active for centuries ejecting lava, rock, smoke, gas, ash and other material, others become inactive over time. VESUVIUS Mount Vesuvius is a stratovolcano, meaning it was built from lots of layers of different material including lava, volcanic ash and other material hurled up by the volcanos violent eruptions. Vesuvius is one of a group of volcanoes in southern Italy known as the Campanian volcanic arc, where the European and African tectonic plates meet. Vesuvius is thought to have formed about 200,000 years ago. It had been dormant since the 8th century BC before it erupted in AD79. EARLY HISTORY The area around Pompeii, in southwest Italy, was first settled by the Neolithic Oscans, who spoke a distinct language. Pompeii was a bronze age settlement on the mouth of the Sarno River. The Oscans were drawn by the source of fresh water and rich volcanic soils. In the 8th century BC it came under the influence of Greeks, then later the Etruscans. The Greeks returned when Etrurias power was broken in the 5th century at the battle of Cumae. The Greeks noted the volcanic landscape and created a legend that this was where their great hero Heracles (Hercules) had battled the giants, which is how the town of Herculaneum got its name. At the end of the 5th century the Samnites, an ancient people who lived in south central Italy, conquered Pompeii. It later came under Roman rule after the Romans defeated the Samnites in 310BC. During the Social War, when several Italian states rebelled against Romes dominance, Pompeii sided with the rebels but was conquered by the armies of Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 69BC. Pompeii was given Roman citizenship to placate the rebellious Italian states. Another plan was to resettle Roman army veterans there, ousting those who supported the rebellion. The town became Romanised. Latin became the language most widely spoken, Roman temples and other structures were built, and cultural influences were adopted. It was a thriving town until an earthquake struck in AD62. Pompeii was still recovering when Vesuvius erupted 17 years later. ERUPTION OF VESUVIUS AD79 In the days before the major eruption in AD79, there were earth tremors and rumblings from the mountain. On the morning of August 24, small explosions from Vesuvius sent a plume of ash into the sky. But by evening the eruptions had worsened. Pliny the Younger described the eruption: On Mount Vesuvius, wide leaping sheets of flame blazed from several places, a brilliant glare against the nights darkness. There had been tremors for several days, but that night they became so strong that everything seemed to be turned upside down. During a 25-hour period, the continued expulsion of ash and rock buried Pompeii and neighbouring towns of Herculaneum and Stabiae. Most people died from suffocation from inhaling the ash which then solidified in their lungs. Many others were buried under layers of ash or were killed when buildings collapsed under the weight of the ash and molten rock. Others were killed instantly by the expulsion of superheated gas and ash, known as a pyroclastic surge, during the final phase of the eruption. Most people know thestory of Pompeiiand how MountVesuvius erupted,burying the ancient Roman town. But what is not well known is that a witness of the eruption was the great Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder (above) who, as commander of a fleet stationed nearby, launched a rescue operation. Despite his efforts, thousands died. But the manner of their death preserved them and their city for posterity. A new exhibition on Pompeii opens this week at the Australian National Maritime Museum. FROM SAMNITE CONQUEST TO ROMAN TOWN V1 - NTNE01Z01MA Northern Territory Government NT~News


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