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Overcoming indigenous disadvantage - key indicators



Overcoming indigenous disadvantage - key indicators


Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision


E-Publications; E-Books; PublicationNT




The OID report measures the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have been actively involved in the development and production of the report. Section 1.1 describes the origins of the report, and section 1.2 describes its key objectives. Section 1.3 provides contextual information on the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Section 1.4 includes a brief historical narrative to help put the information in the report into context. Section 1.5 summarises some recent developments in government policy that have influenced the report and section 1.6 provides further information on the Steering Committee and the OID Working Group that advises it.


"These reports generally uses the term ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians’ to describe Australia’s first peoples and ‘non-Indigenous Australians’ to refer to Australians of other backgrounds, except where quoting other sources." Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people should be aware that this publication may contain images of deceased people.

Table of contents

Preliminaries -- Overview chapter -- Introduction -- The framework -- Key themes and interpretation -- COAG targets and headline indicators -- Governance, leadership and culture -- Early child development -- Education and training -- Healthy lives -- Economic participation -- Home environment -- Safe and supportive communities -- Outcomes for Torres Strait Islander people -- Measuring factors that improve outcomes -- Appendices.




Aboriginal Australians -- Ecoomic conditions; Aboriginal Australians -- Social conditions; Public welfare administration -- Australia; Aboriginal Australians -- Services for; Closing the Gap of Indigenous Disadvantage (Australia)

Publisher name

Australia. Productivity Commission for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision

Place of publication

Canberra (A.C.T.)


5 volumes (various pagings) : charts, colour map ; 30 cm.

File type



9781740375917 (Print); 9781740375900 (PDF)


1448-9805 (Print); 2206-9704 (Online)



Copyright owner

Australia. Productivity Commission for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision



Parent handle


Citation address


Related items

https://hdl.handle.net/10070/445153; https://hdl.handle.net/10070/445154; https://hdl.handle.net/10070/445156; https://hdl.handle.net/10070/445151

Page content

EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT 6.37 skin infection, group A streptococcus, is also associated with chronic renal failure a prevalent and highly burdensome condition among Aboriginal adults (Zubrick et al. 2004). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have substantially higher respiratory morbidity than non-Indigenous children, which can have life-long impacts on lung function (Chang et al. 2014). A study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants hospitalised in Darwin between 2008 and 2013 (McCallum et al. 2016) found that the main factors associated with respiratory readmissions were previous respiratory hospitalisation and household smoke (section 6.2 includes information on smoking during pregnancy and section 8.4 includes information on current smoking rates). Further chronic respiratory disease is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, one of the most common chronic diseases in the adult population (section 4.9 includes information on chronic diseases). A wide range of social, cultural, physical and economic factors, influence the health of children. Communities and governments can assist in preventing disease and promote the health of children through improved access to quality medical care, disease registers to improve follow up care, free vaccination programs, the provision of adequate housing, education on the benefits of good nutrition and sanitation, and policies and promotion to reduce the risk of injury. Breastfeeding can reduce the risk of hospitalisation for a range of acute childhood illnesses, including gastrointestinal diseases and infections, and prevent the development of infections and chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity in later life (FaHCSIA 2013; Queensland Health 2014). Access to effective and appropriate health care services (including dental and immunisation services) can influence the health of children in the short and long term. More information on immunisation rates in children and the prevalence of vaccine preventable diseases as well as access to primary health care in general, is included in section 8.1. Section 6.7 includes information on ear infections in children and section 8.6 covers tooth decay in children (and adults). See section 10.2 for more information on diseases associated with poor environmental health. Potentially preventable hospitalisations Hospitalisation rates are not a measure of the prevalence of a condition in the community, but they do provide an indication of the extent to which serious illnesses are being treated in hospitals. Potentially preventable hospitalisations include conditions that potentially could have been prevented by the provision of appropriate non-hospital health services, and injuries that potentially could have been prevented (usually outside the health system in broader society). These data should be interpreted with care research suggests that parents of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants use health services differently to parents of non-Indigenous infants. Ou et. al (2010), using the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, found that the health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants in the study was poorer than that of non-Indigenous infants, and that parents of Aboriginal and

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