Territory Stories

Overcoming indigenous disadvantage - key indicators



Overcoming indigenous disadvantage - key indicators


Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision


E-Publications; E-Books; PublicationNT




The OID report measures the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have been actively involved in the development and production of the report. Section 1.1 describes the origins of the report, and section 1.2 describes its key objectives. Section 1.3 provides contextual information on the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Section 1.4 includes a brief historical narrative to help put the information in the report into context. Section 1.5 summarises some recent developments in government policy that have influenced the report and section 1.6 provides further information on the Steering Committee and the OID Working Group that advises it.


"These reports generally uses the term ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians’ to describe Australia’s first peoples and ‘non-Indigenous Australians’ to refer to Australians of other backgrounds, except where quoting other sources." Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people should be aware that this publication may contain images of deceased people.

Table of contents

Preliminaries -- Overview chapter -- Introduction -- The framework -- Key themes and interpretation -- COAG targets and headline indicators -- Governance, leadership and culture -- Early child development -- Education and training -- Healthy lives -- Economic participation -- Home environment -- Safe and supportive communities -- Outcomes for Torres Strait Islander people -- Measuring factors that improve outcomes -- Appendices.




Aboriginal Australians -- Ecoomic conditions; Aboriginal Australians -- Social conditions; Public welfare administration -- Australia; Aboriginal Australians -- Services for; Closing the Gap of Indigenous Disadvantage (Australia)

Publisher name

Australia. Productivity Commission for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision

Place of publication

Canberra (A.C.T.)


5 volumes (various pagings) : charts, colour map ; 30 cm.

File type



9781740375917 (Print); 9781740375900 (PDF)


1448-9805 (Print); 2206-9704 (Online)



Copyright owner

Australia. Productivity Commission for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision



Parent handle


Citation address


Related items

https://hdl.handle.net/10070/445153; https://hdl.handle.net/10070/445154; https://hdl.handle.net/10070/445156; https://hdl.handle.net/10070/445151

Page content

ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION 9.31 Income management was introduced into several Northern Territory Aboriginal communities in 2007 as part of the Northern Territory Emergency Response (NTER). It has since been introduced in varying forms (both voluntary and involuntary) in other locations: 2008four Aboriginal communities in Cape York as part of the Cape York Welfare Reform trial 2008selected communities in WA as part of a child protection initiative (Income management in WA) 2010extended across the entire NT as part of New Income Management. The Australian Government made changes to income management to make it compatible with the Racial Discrimination Act 2012extended to five communities around Australia under a new Place Based Income Management model 2012-2013introduced into the APY Lands in South Australia and then Laverton and the Ngaanyatjarra Lands (including Kiwirrkurra) in Western Australia 2014introduced into the Ceduna region in South Australia 2016introduced into the far north Queensland community of Doomadgee (Australian Government 2016; DSS 2016). While income management is available for non-Indigenous Australians, it is largely provided to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (nationally, 79 per cent are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians). As at 25 March 2016 there were 26 508 income support recipients on income management across all locations with 80 per cent (21 190) of participants in the NT (Australian Government 2016). Buckmeister and Ey (2012) found there were substantial difficulties in evaluating the effectiveness of income management, that there had been few studies evaluating its effectiveness and that it was difficult to separate the effects of income management from other factors and policy interventions. Bray et al. (2014) evaluated income management in the NT and concluded that while income management may benefit some individuals there was little evidence that it had achieved the intended outcomes of promoting independence and building skills, changing long-term behaviour or had impacts at the community level. Additional data and further evaluation and research are needed to determine the benefits of income management both generally and in its various forms (also Australian Government 2015). Personal cash income In 2014-15, government pensions and allowances (46.9 per cent) were the main source of personal cash income for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 1864 years, followed by employee income (43.0 per cent) (figure 9.4.1).

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are advised that this website may contain the names, voices and images of people who have died, as well as other culturally sensitive content. Please be aware that some collection items may use outdated phrases or words which reflect the attitude of the creator at the time, and are now considered offensive.

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