Northern Territory weed management handbook
Weed management handbook
E-Publications; E-Books; PublicationNT
Made available via the Publications (Legal Deposit) Act 2004 (NT).; This manual has been developed to provide detailed information about weed control in the Northern Territory.
Date:2012; Includes: Weeds in the N.T. -- Legislative responsibilities -- Strategic & planned approaches to weed management -- Prevention -- Weed control methods -- Integrated weed control -- Using herbicides correctly -- Herbicide toxicity -- Modes of action -- Herbicide resistance -- Herbicide control techniques -- Using adjuvants, surfactants & oils with herbicides -- Factors affecting adjuvant use -- Records of use -- Disposal of excess chemicals & used chemical containers -- Chemical handling training -- Weed control option tables -- Publications -- Websites.
Weeds -- Control; Weeds -- Northern Territory -- Identification
Northern Territory Government
53 p., : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 30 cm.
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9NORTHERN TERRITORY WEED MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK 2012 Herbicide Toxicity A herbicide can be defi ned as a chemical substance used to destroy or inhibit the growth of plants, especially weeds. Herbicides need to be biologically active or toxic, to be effective against the plants that they are intended to kill. In addition to the active ingredient, herbicide formulations may contain other chemicals, such as surfactants and carriers, which may also be toxic. Herbicides can have both immediate (acute) effects and chronic (long-term) effects on the health of people who are exposed to them. Correct administration procedures must be implemented to avoid adverse health effects. Acute Toxicity Poisonings resulting from acute exposure to herbicides can result in a symptoms varying from fatigue, headache, sweating and dizziness to numbness, changes in heart rate, diffi culty in breathing and excessive salivation. Advanced poisoning cases may result in convulsions and coma which could lead to death. Chronic Toxicity The effect of long-term exposure to a chemical/s is referred to as chronic toxicity. Effects of chronic toxicity due to long term herbicide exposure include: neurotoxic effects (toxic effects on the brain and central nervous system); reproductive system effects - The Australian College of Occupational Medicine recommends that women who are pregnant, or likely to become pregnant, protect themselves against chemical exposures that may have adverse reproductive effects. Pregnant women should check herbicide label advice before spraying or using any chemicals. carcinogenicity (causing cancer); and endocrine (hormone) disruption. Routes of Exposure Chemicals can enter the human body through the skin, lungs, mouth and eyes. Extreme care should be taken to prevent exposure to herbicides, the following should be considered: The exposure risk is highest when handling the concentrated version of a product. The most hazardous phase of application is mixing and loading the concentrated product. A respirator may be required when mixing/loading or applying herbicides in an enclosed space (such as a shed), if the herbicide is highly volatile and liable to be breathed as a vapour (such as 2,4-D ester) and if application carries the risk of inhaling the spray mist. The herbicide label should be checked for any personal protection requirements. Ingestion or swallowing is a risk to users who dont wash their hands after handling chemicals, particularly before eating and drinking. Smoking during chemical preparation and application is not recommended for this reason. The acute or immediate toxicity of herbicide is required by law to be communicated in the Poisons Schedule (or poison warnings) which appear on the label of a product. Herbicides are classifi ed into four categories on the basis of their potential toxicity to the user. Each schedule has a corresponding signal heading, which appears in large contrasting lettering on the label of the herbicide product. The Poison Schedule will largely determine the safety directions and fi rst aid instructions that appear on the label. If you suspect poisoning, contact the Poisons Information Centre, emergency phone 13 11 26 (24-hour) and/or call an ambulance. Poison schedule Toxicity Signal Heading Unscheduled Very low toxicity No heading required Schedule 5 Slightly toxic Caution Schedule 6 Moderately toxic Poison Schedule 7 Dangerous Highly toxic poison Table 3 Poisons Schedule